ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ื ื‘ืžื‘ืฆืข ืœืขื™ืชื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืื“ื ืฆืขื™ืจ >>> ืœืคืจื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ื–ืžื ื”

ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” – ืžื“ืข ื”ืจื•ื— ืžื™ื™ืกื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืจื•ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ

ืžื”ื™ ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”?

ืœืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืงื‘ื•ืขื” ืื—ืช, ื•ื›ืœ ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืฃ ืฉืชืฉืืœื• ืื•ืชื• "ืžื”ื™ ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”?" ื™ืขื ื” ืœื›ื ืงืฆืช ืื—ืจืช, ื•ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœื• ืชื™ืงื‘ืข ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœื™ื—ืก ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ ืฉืœื• ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ืจื’ืข.
ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืžื™ืœื” "ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”" ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ืช; ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืก โ€“ ืื“ื, ืกื•ืคื™ื” โ€“ ื—ื›ืžื”, ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” โ€“ ื—ื›ืžืช ื”ืื“ื. ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื ืงืจืืช ื’ื "ื™ื“ืข ื”ืื“ื", ืื• "ืžื“ืข ื”ืจื•ื—". ื”ื™ื ื ื•ืกื“ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื“"ืจ ืจื•ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ (1861 โ€“ 1925), ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื”ื•ื ื’ืจื™ื” (ืงืจืื˜ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ื) ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ื•ื•ื™ื ื” ื•ื’ืจืžื ื™ื”. ืฉื˜ื™ื ืจ ื”ื™ื” ืคื™ืœื•ืกื•ืฃ, ืžื“ืขืŸ, ืžื—ื ืš, ืืžืŸ ื•ืื“ื ื‘ืขืœ ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืจื•ื—ื ื™ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืžืื•ื“, ืฉืืคืฉืจื” ืœื• ืœืจืื•ืช ื•ืœื—ื•ืฉ ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื•ื—ื™ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉื‘ื• ืื ื• ื—ืฉื™ื ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื—ื•ืžืจื™. ืขื ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ื–ื•, ื•ืขืœ ื‘ืกื™ืก ื”ื›ืฉืจืชื• ื›ืžื“ืขืŸ, ื—ืงืจ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ ืืช ืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื•ื— ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžื“ืขื™ ื•ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื—ืงืจ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื โ€œืžื“ืข ื”ืจื•ื— ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™โ€, ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื™ื“ืข ืจื•ื—ื ื™ ื•ื“ืจืš ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืชื™ืช ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืฆืขื•ื“ ื‘ื”.
ืจื•ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืฉื˜ื™ื ืจ ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื’ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”, ื•ืืช ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื, ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ื‘ื:

"ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ื™ื“ืข ื”ืžืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื•ื—ื ื™ ืฉื‘ืื“ื ืœืจื•ื—ื ื™ ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื. ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื ื”ื ืืœื” ืฉื—ื•ื•ื™ื ืฉืืœื•ืช ืขืœ ืื•ื“ื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืื“ื ื•ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ืฆื•ืจืš ืงื™ื•ืžื™, ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื ื—ื•ื•ื™ื ืจืขื‘ ื•ืฆืžื".

ื—ืชืŸ ืคืจืก ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืคืจื•ืค' ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ื•ื’ื• ื‘ืจื’ืžืŸ (1883 โ€“ 1975) ื”ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ืจื•ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื™ืฉื™ ื•ื”ื•ืฉืคืข ืžืžื ื• ืขืžื•ืงื•ืช. ื”ื•ื ื”ื’ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื ื”ื‘ืื•ืช:

"ืžื“ืข ื”ืจื•ื— ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ ืคื•ืชื— ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืื“ื ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ ื“ืจืš ืœื”ืฉืงืคืช ืขื•ืœื ืจื•ื—ื ื™ืช ื•ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช ื—ื“ืฉื”. ื‘ืžืจื›ื–ื” ื ืžืฆืืช ื”ืื™ืฉื™ื•ืช ื”ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ื™ื” ื•ื”ื—ื•ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื ื”ืขืฆืžืื™, ื”ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ืœื”ืชืขืœื•ืช ืœื”ื‘ื ื” ื•ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืžื•ืกืจื™ ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ื• ืžืชื•ืš ืขื•ืœื ืจื•ื—ื ื™ ืฆืจื•ืฃ".

ื•ื™ืคืชื— ื‘ืŸ ืื”ืจื•ืŸ, ื”ื ื—ืฉื‘ ื›ื™ื•ื ืœืื—ื“ ื”ืžื•ืจื™ื ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืœืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื”ื’ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื’ื–ื™ืŸ "ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื" ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ื‘ื:

"ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ื™ื ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ "ืžื“ืข ื”ืจื•ื—" ื•ื›ื›ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื ืคื•ื ื” ืืœ ื”ืื“ื ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื“ื’ืฉืช ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ื—ืฉื™ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžื•ื“ืข ื•ื”ืขืจ. ื•ืขื ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื ื‘ืื” ืœืขื ื•ืช ืขืœ ืฆื•ืจืš ืงื™ื•ืžื™ ื”ื—ื•ืจื’ ืžืชื—ื•ื ื”ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“: ืžืฉืืœืช-ื”ืœื‘ ืœืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื•ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ื•ืช, ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชืงื•ืคืชื ื•. ื”ื™ื ืจื•ืฆื” ืœืขื•ืจืจ ืืช ื”ืื“ื ืœืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ืช ื™ื•ืฆืจืช, ื•ืœื™ื•ื–ืžื” ื•ื”ื’ืฉืžื” ืจื•ื—ื ื™ืช. ื”ื™ื ืžืฆื‘ื™ืขื” ืขืœ ื›ืš ืฉื”ืื ื•ืฉื•ืช ื—ื•ืฆื” ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ืžืžืฉ ืืช ื”ืกืฃ ืืœ ื”ื•ื•ื™ื™ืช ื”ืื ื™ ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ืช ื›ื™ืฉื•ืช-ืื“ื-ืขื•ืœื. ื‘ื›ื•ื—ื” ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืœืฉืคื” ืฉื‘ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื”ืื“ื ื”ื ื™ืฆื‘ ืขืœ ืกืฃ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื™ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื—ืช ื—ื™ื™ื ืขื ื”ืจื•ื—".

ืžื” ื”ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื•ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ?

ื”ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืœื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ ื”ื•ื ื›ืžื• ื”ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืฅ ื•ืคืจื™. ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืขืฅ โ€“ ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื™ื“ืข ืขืœ ื˜ื‘ืขื• ื”ืจื•ื—ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื ื•ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ ื”ื•ื ื”ืคืจื™ ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืฉื•ื ื”ื™ื“ืข ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš. ืœืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื, ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื—ืงืœืื•ืช, ืจืคื•ืื”, ืืžื ื•ืช, ืชืจืืคื™ื” ื ืคืฉื™ืช, ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื•ืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืฆืจื›ื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื, ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช (ืžื“ื™ื˜ืืฆื™ื”), ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื•ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ืช, ื‘ื ืงืื•ืช (!), ื›ืœื›ืœื”, ืžืžืฉืœ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืงื”.

ืœืงืจื™ืืช ืžืืžืจ ืžื•ืจื—ื‘ ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ >

ืื™ืš ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื™ืฉื•ืžื™ื ืคื•ืชื—ื• ืžืชื•ืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ื“?

ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืœืงื•ื“ ืื• ืฉืคืช ืชื›ื ื•ืช, ืฉืžืžื ื” ืคื•ืชื—ื• ื™ื™ืฉื•ืžื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื. ื”ื™ื“ืข ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ ื”ื•ื ืžืงื™ืฃ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ (ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื—ื™ื™ื• ื—ื™ื‘ืจ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ ื›-40 ืกืคืจื™ื ื•ื ืฉื ืžืขืœ ืœ-6,000 ื”ืจืฆืื•ืช) ื•ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขื–ืจืชื• ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœ ืชื—ื•ื ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื. ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœ-90 ืฉื ื” ืื—ืจื™ ืžื•ืชื•, ื”ื™ื“ืข ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ ืžืžืฉื™ืš ืœืชืช ื”ืฉืจืื” ืœืžื—ืงืจ ื•ืœื™ื•ื–ืžื”, ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื•ืœื”ืชืคืชื—.

ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ

ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื”ืžืื” ื”ืขืฉืจื™ื, ื•ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-50 ื”ื•ืงืžื” ืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ืฉืงืจืื” ืกืคืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ ื‘ื’ืจืžื ื™ืช. ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-60 ืชื•ืจื’ืžื• ื”ืกืคืจื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืœืขื‘ืจื™ืช, ื•ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-60 ื ืคืชื—ื• ื”ื™ื•ื–ืžื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช โ€“ ืฉื ื™ ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช ืœื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืžืขื•ื›ื‘ื™ ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช โ€“ ื‘ื™ืช ืืœื™ื”ื• ื‘ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืจื™ ื‘ื’ื‘ืขืช ื”ืžื•ืจื”.
ื’ื ื™ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื ืคืชื—ื• ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-80, ื•ื‘-1989 ื ืคืชื— ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื”ืจื“ื•ืฃ.
ืžืื– ื”ืงืžืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฆืžื—ื” ื”ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื ื™ื›ืจื”, ื›ืืฉืจ ืžื•ืงื“ ื”ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ืช. ื›ื™ื•ื (ืฉื ืช 2013) ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืžืขืœื” ืž-100 ื’ื ื™ ื™ืœื“ื™ื, 21 ื‘ืชื™ ืกืคืจ ื™ืกื•ื“ื™ื™ื, 5 ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื ื•-5 ืกืžื™ื ืจื™ื ืœื”ื›ืฉืจื•ืช ืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ. ืžืกืคืจ ืžืฉื•ืขืจ ืฉืœ 5,000 ื‘ืชื™-ืื‘ ื‘ืื™ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืฉื ื” ื‘ืžื’ืข ืขื ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ, ื•ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื’ื“ืœ ื‘ื”ืชืžื“ื”. ืžืœื‘ื“ ื”ื™ื•ื–ืžื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ื•ืช, ืžืžืฉื™ื›ื•ืช ืœืคืขื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ื•ื–ืžื•ืช ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉื™ืงื•ืžื™ื•ืช. ื›ืŸ ื™ืฉ ื ื™ืฆื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื–ืžื•ืช ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ื•ืช ื•ื—ืงืœืื™ื•ืช.

ื”ื•ืฆืืช ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื

ื”ื•ืฆืืช ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื ื ื•ืกื“ื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 2008 ื•ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ืฃ ื”ืชืงืฉื•ืจืช ืฉืœ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ. ืžื˜ืจืชื” ื”ื™ื ืœืงื“ื ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื˜ื™ืคื•ื— ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืžืงื‘ืœืช ื”ืฉืจืืชื” ืžื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื•ื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ. ื”ื•ืฆืืช ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื ืžื ื”ืœืช ืืช ืงื”ื™ืœืช ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื, ืžื•ืฆื™ืื” ืืช ืขื™ืชื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืื“ื ืฆืขื™ืจ, ืžืคืจืกืžืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืฉื‘ื•ืข ืืช ื”ืื™ื’ืจืช , ืžืคืขื™ืœื” ืืช ืืชืจ ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื ื•ืคืขื™ืœื” ื•ืชื•ืžื›ืช ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ื–ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”.

ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ื ื‘ืžื‘ืฆืข ืœืขื™ืชื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืื“ื ืฆืขื™ืจ >>> ืœืคืจื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ื–ืžื ื”

ืชื’ื•ื‘ื•ืช

ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื“ื•ืืจ ื”ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ื ื™ ืฉืœืš ืœื ืชืคื•ืจืกื. ืฉื“ื•ืช ื”ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืžืกื•ืžื ื™ื *

*

2 ืชื’ื•ื‘ื•ืช