ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ื ื‘ืžื‘ืฆืข ืœืขื™ืชื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืื“ื ืฆืขื™ืจ >>> ืœืคืจื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ื–ืžื ื”
ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช โ€“ ืฉืืœื•ืช ื•ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช

ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช โ€“ ืฉืืœื•ืช ื•ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช

ื‘ืžื“ื•ืจ ื”ื ื•ื›ื—ื™ ืจื™ื›ื–ืชื™ ืฉืืœื•ืช ื ืคื•ืฆื•ืช ืื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช. ืžื”ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ื”ืื™ืฉื™ืช ืฉืœื™, ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื ื›ืžื• ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก ืฉื•ืคืข, ื”ืžืœื ื‘ื™ื“ืข, ื‘ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช, ื•ื‘ื›ืœื™ื ืœื˜ืจื ืกืคื•ืจืžืฆื™ื” ื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื•ื‘ื˜ื‘ืข ื•ื”ืŸ ื‘ืื“ื. ืื ื™ ืžืงื•ื•ื” ืฉื‘ืฉืืœื•ืช ืืœื” ืื•ื›ืœ ืœืคืชื•ื— ืœื›ื ืฉืขืจ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœื”ื™ื›ืจื•ืช ืขื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื”.

ื›ืžื” ื—ื•ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื•ืช ื™ืฉ ื‘ืขื•ืœื?

ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื ืชื ื•ืขื” ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช ื”ืžื™ื•ืฉืžืช ื‘ื›-50 ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช. ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื›-5,000 ื—ื•ื•ืช ื”ืžืคื•ืงื—ื•ืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืจืฉืžื™ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ "ื“ืžื˜ืจ" (Demeter), ื”ืงืจื•ื™ ืขืœ ืฉืžื” ืฉืœ ืืœืช ื”ืคืจื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ืžื™ืชื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื”ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ืช[1]. ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ืžื™ื•ืฉืžืช ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ ื‘ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื›ืจืžื™ ื–ื™ืชื™ื, ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืขื ื‘ื™ื, ืžื˜ืขื™ื, ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœื™ ืฉื“ื”, ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœื™ ื™ืจืงื•ืช. ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืคื™ืงื•ื— ื”ืจืฉืžื™, ื™ืฉื ืŸ ื—ื•ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืฉืžื™ื™ืฉืžื•ืช ืคืจืงื˜ื™ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ืœืœื ืคื™ืงื•ื— ืจืฉืžื™, ื•ืžืกืคืจืŸ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื“ื•ืข.

ื”ืื ื™ืฉ ืžื—ืงืจ ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™?

ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜. ืžืื– ืจืืฉื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ืขื‘ื“ื• ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ื ื’ื ื›ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื. ื‘ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื ืคืขืœื• ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ื”ื˜ื›ื ื™ืงื•ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื™ื™ืฉื ืืช ื”ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช ืฉื ื™ืชื ื• ืขืœื™ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ, ื•ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื ื™ื ื ืขืจื›ื• ื ื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื ืžื“ืขื™ื™ื ื•ืืœื˜ืจื ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉืคืขื•ืช ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ืงื•ื ื‘ื ืฆื™ื•ื ืœื™ืช ืืœ ืžื•ืœ ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช.
ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื›ื™ื•ื ืคืขื™ืœื™ื ื›ืžื” ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ ืžื—ืงืจ ื•ื™ื“ืข ื”ืขื•ืกืงื™ื ื‘ื”ื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช. ื‘ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื ืืœื• ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืœืคืชื— ืืช ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ืฉื ื•ืขื“ื• ืœื“ื™ื™ืง ืืช ื”ืฉืคืขืชื ืขืœ ื”ืงืจืงืข, ื”ืฆื•ืžื— ื•ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื[2].
ืจืื•ื™ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ืžื—ืงืจื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ืฉื ืขืจื›ื• ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžื—ืงืจื™ื ื”ืžืžื•ืฉื›ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื”ืฉื•ื•ืืชื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ืงืœืื•ืช[3].

ืžื” ื”ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ืœืฆืžื—ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืœื˜ื‘ืขื•ื ื•ืช?

ืื ืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ื™ื•ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืœืฆืžื—ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืœื˜ื‘ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืžืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืžื’ื•ื•ื ื•ืช. ืื—ืช ื”ืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืœืชื–ื•ื ื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืชื—ื•ืฉืช ื”ืขืจืš ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืฉื”ื ืจื•ื—ืฉื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ื•ื”ืฉืื™ืคื” ืœื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ืขื ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ืœืื•ืจ ื–ืืช, ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื–ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ื—ืœืงื™ื ืžื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื (ื›ืžื• ืงืจื ื™ื™ื) ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ืžื”ื•ื•ื” ืกื•ื’ื™ื” ืื•ืชื” ืจืื•ื™ ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืื ืื•ืชื ืขืจื›ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื ื ืฉืžืจื™ื ื‘ื”. ื”ืกื•ื’ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ืจื—ื‘ื” ืžืื•ื“ ื•ืจืื•ื™ ืฉื›ืœ ืื“ื ื™ื—ืงื•ืจ ืื•ืชื” ืœืขื•ืžืง. ืœื”ืœืŸ ืืจื›ื– ื›ืžื” ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช:

ื”ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื”ืชืคืชื—ื• ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื‘ืกื™ืžื‘ื™ื•ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื. ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ืช ื™ืฆืจื” ืชืคื™ืกื” ื—ื“ืฉื” ืœืคื™ื” ืงื™ื™ืžืช ื”ืคืจื“ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช. ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ืคื•ืขืœืช ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืืช ื”ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ื‘ื˜ื‘ืข, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืžืฉืœื‘ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื, ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ืื ืฉื™ื.
ื–ื‘ืœื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื, ื”ืžื›ื™ืœื™ื ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืžืคื•ืจืงื™ื ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ืžื™ื˜ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืžืขืจื›ืช ืžืจืชืงืช ืฉืœ ืžื™ืงืจื•ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื–ืžื™ื, ื”ื™ื ื”ื›ืจื—ื™ืช ืœื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื”ืงืจืงืข ื•ืœืงื™ื•ืžื” ื”ืขืชื™ื“ื™.

ืžื˜ืจืชื ืฉืœ ื”ืชื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืœื”ื–ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื—ื–ืง ืืช ื”ืื“ืžื” ื•ืœืชืžื•ืš ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืื ืจื’ื˜ื™ ื”ื—ื™. ื”ื ืฉื•ืืคื™ื ืœื•ื•ืกืช ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืžืื•ื–ื ื™ื (ืœืžืฉืœ โ€“ ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ื ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืื• ืœื”ื•ืจื™ื“ ืืช ื”ืœื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืงืจืงืข). ื’ื ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื”ื›ื ืชื ืฉื•ืืคื™ื ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืืช ืื•ืชื” ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื‘ืจืžื•ืช ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืžืื•ื“. ืœืฉื-ื›ืš ื ืจืงื— ืชืžื”ื™ืœ ืžื“ื•ื™ืง ื”ืžื›ื™ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ืฆื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื˜ื‘ืข โ€“ ืžื™ื ืจืœื™ื, ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื–ืžื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื. ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื ืื’ืจ ื™ื“ืข ืจื‘ ืื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืขื“ื™ื ื™ื ื”ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื‘ื˜ื‘ืข, ื•ื”ืชื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ื”ื ื“ืจืš ืžืขืฉื™ืช ืœื”ื ื™ืข ืืช ืื•ืชื ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช[4].

ืžื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช?

ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ืœื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ืช-ืงื™ื™ืžื ื“ื•ืื’ื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืœื”ืคื™ืง ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ-ืงื™ื™ืžื, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ืฉื•ืืคืช ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื˜ืจื ืกืคื•ืจืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช, ื•ืžื—ืคืฉืช ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœืžืงืกื ืืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื•ื”ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืช. ืœืื•ืจ ื–ืืช ืฉื•ืืคืช ื”ื’ื™ืฉื” ืœื”ืงื™ืฃ ืืช ื›ืœ ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ืœืฉืคืจ ืืช ื”ื“ืจืš ืฉื‘ื” ืื ื• ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ืžื–ื•ืŸ, ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืžืชื•ืš ื“ื™ืืœื•ื’ ืขื ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืชืžื•ืš ื‘ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื–ื• ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ื ื‘ืชื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื, ืืฉืจ ื ื•ืขื“ื• ืœื”ื—ื™ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืงื•ืžืคื•ืกื˜, ื”ืื“ืžื”, ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื, ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉืง ื‘ื›ืœืœ.

ื›ืคื™ ืฉื›ื•ืจืžื™ื ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืœื›ืš ืฉื”ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ื˜ื ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืช ื”ืื™ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื’ื™ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ ื•ืืช ื”ื›ืจื ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ืฉื‘ื• ืฆื•ืžื—ื™ื ื”ืขื ื‘ื™ื, ื›ืš ื’ื ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืฉื”ืžืฉืงื™ื ื™ื‘ื™ืขื• ืืช ื”ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ื”ืžืœื ืฉืœื”ื ื•ืœื ืจืง ืืช ืžืงืกื™ืžื•ื ื”ืชื ื•ื‘ื”, ืขืœ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื”ืื“ืžื” ืื• ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืืชื ืฉื•ืœื˜ื™ื ื‘ืžื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื?

ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœื”ื›ื—ื™ื“ ืžื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื, ืื ื—ื ื• ืžื ืกื™ื ืœืžื–ืขืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืคืขืชื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืžืฉืง ื—ืงืœืื™ ื‘ืจื™ื. ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืžืฉืง ื”ื™ื ื›ืžื• ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื“ื ื‘ืขืœ ืžืขืจื›ืช ื—ื™ืกื•ื ื™ืช ื—ื–ืงื”: ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืžืคืขื ืœืคืขื ื™ื—ืœื” ื‘ืฉืคืขืช, ืืš ื”ื•ื ื™ืชืื•ืฉืฉ ืžืžื ื” ื‘ืžื”ืจื” ื•ืœื ื™ื™ืฉืืจื• ื‘ื’ื•ืคื• ื”ืฉืคืขื•ืช ืืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื˜ื•ื•ื—. ืœื˜ื‘ืข ื™ืฉ ืืช ื”ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืฉืœื• ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ืฉื‘ื” ืœื›ืœ ื’ื•ืจื ื™ืฉ ืชืคืงื™ื“ ื•ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช. ืื ืžืืคืฉืจื™ื ืœืžืฉืง ืœื”ืชืคืชื— ื‘ื“ืจืš ื‘ืจื™ืื” ื‘ืื“ืžื”, ื‘ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ื‘ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ื”ื•ืคื›ืช ื›ืœ ืžื—ืœื” ืื• "ืžื–ื™ืง" ืœืชื•ืคืขื” ืฉื‘ืื” ื•ื—ื•ืœืคืช.

ื”ืื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืžื“ื•ื™ืง ืœืคื™ ืœื•ื— ื”ืฉื ื”?

ืœื•ื— ื”ืฉื ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืžืงืฆื‘ื™ื ื”ืขื“ื™ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ื”ื•ื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื“ื™ื™ืง ืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ืจื™ืขื”, ืฉืชื™ืœื”, ืงื˜ื™ืฃ, ื“ื™ืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืžื—ืœื•ืช ื•"ืžื–ื™ืงื™ืโ€. ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื–ืืช, ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื™ื ื›ืžื• ืžื–ื’ ืื•ื•ื™ืจ, ื–ืžื™ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืฉืชื™ืœื™ื, ืงื•ืžืคื•ืกื˜ ืื• ื›ื•ื— ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžืฉืคื™ืขื™ื ืขืœ ืžื” ืื ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืชื™. ืืžื™ืจื” ื”ืจื•ื•ื—ืช ื‘ื—ื•ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ืžื‘ืงืฉืช ืืช ื”ื’ื™ืฉื” ื”ืคืฉืจื ื™ืช: "ืืœ ืชื™ืชืŸ ืœืžื•ืฉืœื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืื•ื™ื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘". ืขืฉื” ืžื” ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช, ื•ืžืชื™ ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืื•ืชื•. ื›ืœ ื–ื” ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืื™-ืขืฉื™ื™ื”. ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืฉื”ืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ืฉืชืชืงื‘ืœื ื” ืชื”ื™ื™ื ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช.

ื”ืื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื™ืฉื ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ื‘ืงื ื” ืžื™ื“ื” ืงื˜ืŸ - ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืื• ื‘ื’ื™ื ื” ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™ืช?

ื›ืŸ, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ. ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ืช ืœื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืขื•ืกืง ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืขื ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ื›ืืฉืจ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืขื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ื‘ืงื ื” ืžื™ื“ื” ืงื˜ืŸ ืขื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืืœื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช: ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื–ื ื—ืงืœืื™ ืฉืœื? ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืฉื™ื’ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื”ืื“ืžื” ื•ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื?

ืœื˜ืขืžื™, ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืขื•ืœื” ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ืžืื•ื“: ื›ืืฉืจ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืขื ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ื‘ืงื ื” ืžื™ื“ื” ืงื˜ืŸ, ืื ื• ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืฉื™ืชื•ืคื™ ืคืขื•ืœื”: ืขื ืฉื›ื ื™ื, ืขื ืื ืฉื™ื ืžื”ืื–ื•ืจ ื•ืขื ื—ื‘ืจื™ื. ื”ื›ื•ืœ ื”ื•ืœืš... ื”ืขื™ืงืจ ื”ื•ื ืœืฉืชืฃ ืคืขื•ืœื” ื•ืœื’ืจื•ื ื™ื—ื“ ืœื’ื™ื ื” ื”ื‘ื™ืชื™ืช ืื• ื”ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™ืช ืœื”ืชืขื•ืจืจ ืœื—ื™ื™ื.

ืžื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ (ืชื• ื”ืชืงืŸ ื•ื”ืื™ื›ื•ืช) ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™?

"ื“ืžื˜ืจ" ื”ื•ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ืื™ื›ื•ืช ืœื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ื”ืžื•ื›ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื”ืกื™ืžื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœืขืงืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช ื‘ืžืฉืง ื”ื—ื™ ื›ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื–ื, ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ ื‘ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช, ื‘ืจ-ืงื™ื™ืžื, ื•ื›ื›ื–ื” ืฉืขื•ืงื‘ ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช ื”ืขื•ื ื•ืช. ื“ืžื˜ืจ ื”ื•ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ืžื•ื›ืจ ื‘ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืืจืฆื•ืช ืื™ืจื•ืคื”, ืืจื”"ื‘, ื ื™ื• ื–ื™ืœื ื“ ื•ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช. ืคื™ืจื•ื˜ ื”ืชืงืŸ ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื ืœืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื–ื ื—ืงืœืื™ ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืคืจื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืงืจืงืข, ื”ื’ื ืช ื”ืฆื•ืžื—, ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื—ืžืžื•ืช, ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื•ืจื•ื•ื—ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืชื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื.

ื”ืชืงืŸ ืฉื ื“ื’ืฉ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขืœ ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืžืฉืง, ื•ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื”ืคืจืฉืช ื›-10% ืžืฉื˜ื— ื”ื—ื•ื•ื” ืœืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™.

ืœืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื ืœื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ืžืฉืง ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ืจื‘ื”, ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื ื ื•ืกื—ื• ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื”ืžืื” ื”-20', ื‘ื˜ืจื ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื” ื”ืกื™ื ืชื˜ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ืœืฉื™ืื”[5], ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืชื ื•ืขืช-ื”ื ื’ื“ ืฉืœื”: ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืœื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ืช-ื”ืงื™ื™ืžื.[6]

ืœืกื™ื›ื•ื ืืฆื˜ื˜ ืงื˜ืข ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ืฉืœ ืื”ืจื ืคืจื™ื“ ืคื™ื™ืคืจ (Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, 1899 โ€“ 1961), ื”ืื’ืจื•ื ื•ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™, ืืฉืจ ื™ื™ืกื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื” ืžืชื•ืš ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืขื ืจื•ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ:

"ืื ื• ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ืช ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ืช ืฆืขื“ื ื• ื‘ืœื ืกืคืง ื‘ื“ืจื›ื ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื, ื•ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื ื• ื ื‘ืข, ืขืœ ื›ืŸ, ื‘ืจื•ื‘ื•, ืžืฉื™ืขื•ืจื™ื• ื”ืงืฉื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ. ืจืง ืขืชื” (1958) ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืคื ื™ื ื• ื”ืชืžื•ื ื” ื”ืฉืœืžื” ืฉืœ ื”ืื™ืžืคื•ืœืก ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ืขืœ-ื™ื“ื™ ืจื•ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ. ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืจื•ื›ื” ื”ื“ืจืš ืœืคื ื™ื ื•, ื‘ื˜ืจื ื ืžืฆื” ื›ืœื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ื’ืœื•ืžื•ืช ื‘ื•. ื”ื”ื™ืฉื’ื™ื ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ืื™ื ื ืืœื ืฆืขื“ื™ื ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื. ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืขืžื• ื ื™ืกื™ื•ื ื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื™ื ื•ืžื’ืœื” ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ืžื‘ื˜ ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช".[7]

ื”ืจื•ื— ื”ืคืขื™ืœื” ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื—ืงืจ ื”ืื™ืฉื™ ื•ื”ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™, ื”ืฉื•ืืฃ ืฉืื™ืคื” ืืžื™ืชื™ืช ืœื”ื™ื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื“ื, ืœืื“ืžื”, ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ืœื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื. ืืชื ืžื•ื–ืžื ื™ื ืœื”ืฆื˜ืจืฃ ืœืžืขื’ืœ ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ื•ืœื”ื ื™ืข ืฉื™ื ื•ื™.


[1]ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย  ืกื˜ื˜ื™ืกื˜ื™ืงื” ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ื—ื•ื•ืช ื”ืžืคื•ืงื—ื•ืช ืขืœ-ื™ื“ื™ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ "ื“ืžื˜ืจ" ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืžืฆื•ื ื‘ืืชืจ: http://www.demeter.net/statistics.

[2]ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย  ืœืงืจื™ืื” ื ื•ืกืคืช ืขืœ ืžื—ืงืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ื™ื ืจืื• ื‘ืขืžื•ื“: https://www.biodynamics.com/content/research-institutes-and-other-organizations

[3]ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย  ืจืื• ืœืžืฉืœ:

Granstedt, A. and L. Kjellenberg. 2011.ย Skilleby Long Term Field Trial 1991-2010 (link is external). Final Report June 2011. Biodynamic Research Institute. Jarna, Sweden.

Kjellenberg, L. and A. Granstedt. 2005.ย The K-trial. A 33-year study of the connections between manuring, soils and crops(link is external). Biodynamic Research Institute, Sweden.

[4]ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย  ืœืงืจื™ืื” ื ื•ืกืคืช: www.biodynamic.org.uk/vegan-concerns

[5]ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย  ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื” ื”ืกื™ื ืชื˜ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื”ื—ืœื” ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื”ืžืื” ื”-19 ื•ืฉื™ืื” ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืžืื” ื”-20. ื‘ืžื”ืœื›ื” ื”ื—ืœ ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื ืจื—ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื“ืฉื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืžืจื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื” ื›ื™ืžื™ื™ื.

[6]ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย  ืจืืฉื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืœื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ืช-ืงื™ื™ืžื ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-40 ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”-20.

[7]ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย ย  ืจื•ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ, ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช, ื”ื•ืฆืืช ืืกื˜ืจื•ืœื•ื’.

ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ื ื‘ืžื‘ืฆืข ืœืขื™ืชื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืื“ื ืฆืขื™ืจ >>> ืœืคืจื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ื–ืžื ื”

ืชื’ื•ื‘ื•ืช

ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื“ื•ืืจ ื”ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ื ื™ ืฉืœืš ืœื ืชืคื•ืจืกื. ืฉื“ื•ืช ื”ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืžืกื•ืžื ื™ื *

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