ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืชื‘ื•ืช ืžืืช ื’ื‘ืข ืฉืฉื•ืŸ

ื’ื‘ืข ืฉืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžื—ื ืš ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ, ืžืœื•ื•ื” ื‘ืชื™ ืกืคืจ ื•ื—ื‘ืจ ืžืขืจื›ืช ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื.

ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื–ืื‘ ื”ืจืฆืœ โ€“ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื—ืœื•ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื” ืœืื™ืฉ ืžืขืฉื”

ืžื“ื•ืจ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœื ืคืฉ-ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืงื˜ื ื”

ื”ื“ืขืช ืกื•ื‘ืจืช ืฉื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื–ืื‘ ื”ืจืฆืœ, ื—ื•ื–ื” ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืื“ื ื—ื™ืœื•ื ื™ ืจืฆื™ื•ื ืœื™. ืžื‘ื˜ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืขืœ ื—ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืขืฆื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื• ืžืฆื™ื’ ืืช ื”ืคืŸ ื”ืžื™ืกื˜ื™ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื• ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืื‘ื•ื“ ืฉืœ ื”ื–ืงื ื” [ืื™ื’ืจืช 297]

ื‘ืฆื™ืœื•ื: ืจื•ื–ื” ืžืขื ื™ืช. ื ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘-1907 ื‘ืจื•ืกื™ื” ื•ืขืœืชื” ืœืžื•ืฉื‘ ื ื”ืœืœ ืขื ื”ื•ืจื™ื” ื›ืฉื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื‘ืช 16. ื‘ืฉื ืช 1954 ื”ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื” ืขื ื‘ื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ืชื” ื‘ื™ืจื•ื—ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ื”ืงืžืช ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื”, ื•ื‘-1984 ืฉื‘ื” ืœื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจ ื‘ื ื”ืœืœ, ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ืชื”

ืฉื™ื—ื” ืขื ื“"ืจ ื›ืจืžืœ ืฉืœื•, ืžื™ื™ืกื“ืช ืชื ื•ืขืช "ื—ื›ืžืช ื”ื”ื–ื“ืงื ื•ืช", ืืฉืจ ืžื˜ืคื—ืช ืจืื™ื™ื” ื—ื“ืฉื” ืฉืœ ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ื”ื–ื“ืงื ื•ืช, ืžื ืงื•ื“ืช ืžื‘ื˜ ื‘ื•ื“ื”ื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ื.ื“. ื’ื•ืจื“ื•ืŸ – ื–ืงืŸ ื‘ืŸ 50

ืžื“ื•ืจ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœื ืคืฉ-ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืงื˜ื ื”

ื”ื•ื ืขืœื” ืœืืจืฅ ื›ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ื›ืžืขื˜ 50, ื•ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืจื” ื•ื”ื•ื’ื” ื“ืขื•ืช ื”ืชืขืงืฉ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืืš ื•ืจืง ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื—ืงืœืื™ืช. ื”ื—ืœื•ืฆื™ื ืกื’ื“ื• ืœื• ืขื•ื“ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื• ื•ื›ื™ื ื• ืื•ืชื• "ืื‘ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื™ื” ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื”" ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

"ืžืฉื™ื—" ืฉืœ ื”ื ื“ืœ โ€” ืฆืœื™ืœ ื”ืื ื™ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœื ื•

ืžื“ื•ืจ ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ืžื’ื–ื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื

ื”ื™ืฆื™ืจื” ื”ืžื ื•ื’ื ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžื•ืคืขื™ ืฆื“ืงื” ืื™ ืคืขื, ื–ื• ืฉื’ืจืžื” ืœืžืœืš ืื ื’ืœื™ื” ืœืงื•ื ืขืœ ืจื’ืœื™ื•, ื–ื• ืฉืžืจื’ืฉืช ืืช ื”ืงื”ืœ ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ื›ื‘ืจ 300 ืฉื ื”: ืงื‘ืœื• ืืช ื”ืื•ืจื™ื˜ื•ืจื™ื” "ืžืฉื™ื—" ืฉืœ ื”ื ื“ืœ - ื”ืื•ืคืฆื™ื” ื”ื–ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืชืขืœื•ืช ืืœ ื”ื ืฉื’ื‘ ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืœื—ื‘ืง ื›ืžื• ื•ื ื•ืก, ืœื ื–ื•ืฃ ื›ืžื• ืžืืจืก

ื”ื‘ื ืช ื™ื—ืกื™ ื”ื’ื•ืžืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืื“ื ืœืงื•ืกืžื•ืก ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ื’ื ืœืžื•ืจื™ื ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืœืืžื ื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื. ื’ื‘ืข ืฉืฉื•ืŸ ืžืกื‘ื™ืจ ื•ืžืคืจื˜ ืขืœ ื™ื™ืฉื•ื ืขืงืจื•ื ื•ืช ืคืœื ื˜ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืžืœืื›ืช ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ื‘ืจื ืจื“ ืœื™ื•ื•ื›ื•ื˜ โ€“ ืื“ื ื‘ืŸ ื–ืžื ื•

ืžื“ื•ืจ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœื ืคืฉ-ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืงื˜ื ื”

"ืื“ื ืฉืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉืขื” ื•ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืกื•ืขืจ" ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

12 ื”ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื

ืžื“ื•ืจ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœื ืคืฉ-ื™ื•ืฆืง ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช

ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉื ื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื“ืฆืžื‘ืจ ื•ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื™ื ื•ืืจ, ื›ืืฉืจ ืื ื• ื—ื•ื•ื™ื ืืช ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืืคืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื ื”, ื“ื•ื•ืงื ืื–, ืžื“ื’ื™ืฉ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ืจ, ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ืจื•ื—ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื–ื•ืจื— ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืื“ืžื” ื•ืขื•ืฉื” ืื•ืชื” ืฉืงื•ืคื” ื•ื–ื•ื”ืจืช ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื. ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื”, ื›ืืฉืจ ืœืงืจื ื™ื™ื ื”ืคื™ื–ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื™ืฉ ืคื—ื•ืช ื›ื•ื— ื•ื”ื—ื•ืฉืš ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืื– ื”ื›ื•ื— ื”ืจื•ื—ื ื™ ืฉืขื•ื˜ืฃ ืืช ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื•ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ืฉื ืชื™. ื”ื•ื ... ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืžืงืฆื‘ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื: ืžื‘ื˜ ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ ืขืœ ืคืจืก ื ื•ื‘ืœ ืœืจืคื•ืื” 2017 [ืื™ื’ืจืช 277]

ื–ื•ื›ื™ ืคืจืก ื ื•ื‘ืœ ืœืจืคื•ืื” ืœืฉื ืช 2017 ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœืคืจื™ืฆืช ื“ืจืš ื‘ืžื—ืงืจ ื”ืงืฉืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœืงื•ืœืช ื”ื—ืœื‘ื•ืŸ ื‘ืชื ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืขื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื. ื’ื‘ืข ืฉืฉื•ืŸ ืžื•ืกื™ืฃ ืœื’ื™ืœื•ื™ื™ื ืืช ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ืžื‘ื˜ ื”ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ืช ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ื ืืกืฃ ืชืฉืจื™ – ื ืก ืืžื ื•ืชื™

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืคืš ืฉื™ืจ ืคื™ืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ ื—ื™ื“ืชื™ ืฉืœ ื ืชืŸ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ, ื”ืžืงื™ื™ื ื“ื• ืฉื™ื— ืžื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื•ืจืขื™ื•ื ื™ ืขื ืฉื™ืจ ืžื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื, ืœืœื”ื™ื˜ ืขื ืง ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื–ืžื ื™ื? ืื•ืœื™ ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื˜ืžื•ื ื” ื‘ืœื—ืŸ ืฉื›ืชื‘ ืœื• ืฆื‘ื™ืงื” ืคื™ืง, ืฉื”ืคืš ืื•ืชื• ืœืงื•ื ืฆื ื–ื•ืก ื—ื•ื“ืจ ืœื‘ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื—ื•ืฆื” ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื”ื–'ืื ืจื™ื. ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ื”ืื™ืฉื” ืฉื’ื™ืœืชื” ืืช ื”ืงื•ืœ โ€” ื•ืœื‘ื•ืจื’ ื•ืจื‘ืง-ืกื•ื•ืจื“ืกื˜ืจื•ื

ืžื“ื•ืจ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœื ืคืฉ-ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืงื˜ื ื”

ื”ืงื•ืœ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ืื—ืช ื”ืชื•ืคืขื•ืช ื”ืžืจืชืงื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื ื•. ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ื—ื›ืžืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ื•ื•ื™ื™ืชื• ื”ืจื•ื—ื ื™ืช ื•ื”ืคื™ื–ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื, ื•ื ืจืื” ืฉื‘ืชืงื•ืคื•ืช ืืœื• ื”ื™ื” ื”ื™ื“ืข ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื–ื” ืจื—ื‘ ื•ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื•[1]. ื•ืœื‘ื•ืจื’ ื•ืจื‘ืง-ืกื•ื•ืจื“ืกื˜ืจื•ื, ื–ืžืจืช ืื•ืคืจื” ืžื•ื›ืฉืจืช, ืงืจืื” ืชื™ื’ืจ ืขืœ ืžืกื•ืจืช ื”ืฉื™ืจื” ืฉืœ ื–ืžื ื” ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืงืฉื” ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืžื ืงื•ื“ืช ืžื‘ื˜ ื—ื“ืฉื” ืฉืืคืฉืจื” ื”ื‘ื ื” ืจื•ื—ื ื™ืช ืขืžื•ืงื” ืฉืœ ื”ืงื•ืœ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™. ื•ืœื‘ื•ืจื’ ืกื•ื•ืจื“ืกื˜ืจื•ื ื ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘-22 ... ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »