ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืชื‘ื•ืช ืžืืช ืจื•ื ืŸ ื”ืืŸ

ืจื•ื ืŸ ื”ืืŸ ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืขืฅ ืืจื’ื•ื ื™, ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืืช IMO ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ

ืžื ื“ื˜ ืœืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช

ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ื” ืื ื• ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ื”ื—ืœื˜ื” ื”ื™ื ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืฉืœื ื•, ื–ื• ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ื” ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ืœื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช, ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ืœืคื’ื•ืฉ ืืช ืขืฆืžื ื• ื•ืœื”ืชื—ื‘ืจ ืœืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืื ื—ื ื• ืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืืœื™ื”ื ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ื”ืงื•ืœื’ื™ื•ื

ืžืืžืจ ื–ื” ืžืฆื™ืข ืชืคื™ืกื” ื›ืœืœื™ืช ืœื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฆื•ื•ืช. ื‘ืžื•ื ื— "ืฆื•ื•ืช" ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื›ืœื•ืœ ืžื—ืœืงื”, ืขื ืฃ ื•ื’ื ืืช ื›ืœืœ ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ืœื ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ืขื“ 70-60 ืžืฉืชืชืคื™ื. ื”ื“ื•ื’ืžื” ื•ื”ื”ืฉืจืื” ืžืชื‘ืกืกื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืฆื•ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืชื™ ืกืคืจ ื•ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื•ืœื’ื™ื•ื, ื›ืคื™ ืฉื ื•ืกื—ื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื›ืจื™ืกื˜ื•ืฃ ื•ื™ื™ื›ืจื˜.[1] ื•ืื•ืœื ืœื“ืขืชื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช ืืœื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ืฉื™ื‘ืช ืฆื•ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ. ื”ืงื•ืœื’ื™ื•ื ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืคื’ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ... ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืœืื˜, ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื˜ื•ื—

ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืขืกืงื™ ืฉืœ ื™ืžื™ื ื• ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืœื ืžื”ื™ืจ ื•ืชื–ื–ื™ืชื™. ื™ื•ืขืฆื™ IMO ืงื•ืจืื™ื ืœืืจื’ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืœื”ืื˜, ื•ืœืขืชื™ื ืืฃ ืœืขืฆื•ืจ, ื•ื–ืืช ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืืคืฉืจ ืœืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืžื”ื•ืชื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ืœืขืœื•ืช ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

"ื”ืขื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืืช ืงื™ื•ืžื” ืœืื•ืจ" โ€“ ืžื—ืงืจ ื”ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ืฉืœ ื’ืชื”

ื™ื•ื”ืืŸ ื•ื•ืœืคื’ื ื’ ืคื•ืŸ ื’ืชื” ื–ื›ื” ืœืคืจืกื•ืžื• ื›ืžืฉื•ืจืจ ื“ื’ื•ืœ, ืืš ื”ื™ื” ื’ื ืžื“ืขืŸ ืฉื”ืขืžื™ืง ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืฆื‘ืขื™ื, ื•ืืฃ ืคื™ืชื— ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื” ื—ืœื•ืคื™ืช ืœื–ื• ืฉืœ ื ื™ื•ื˜ื•ืŸ. ืžื—ืงืจื• ื”ื™ื” ื”ื•ืœื™ืกื˜ื™: ืคื™ื–ื™ืงืœื™ ื•ื›ื™ืžื™, ืืš ื’ื ืคืกื™ื›ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ ื•ืžื•ืกืจื™. ื›ืœ-ื›ื•ืœื• ื ื•ืขื“ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช "ืชื•ืคืขืช ื”ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช" ืฉืœ ื”ืฆื‘ืข ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืžื•ื“ืœ "ืขืœื™ ื”ืชืœืชืŸ": ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื”ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืงื•ื ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉืœื™

ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ืคื›ืช ืœืื•ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื™ืช, ื•ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืื™ื ื ืžืฆืœื™ื—ื™ื ืœืžืฆื•ื ืคืฉืจ ืœืžืขืฉื™ื”ื. ืžื•ื“ืœ "ืขืœื™ ื”ืชืœืชืŸ" ืžืืคืฉืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ืžื—ื•ื“ืฉืช ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืขื•ื‘ื“ ืžื•ืœ ื—ื–ื•ืŸ ื”ืืจื’ื•ืŸ, ืชื•ืฆืจื™ื•, ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ื•ื“ืช ื”ืฆื•ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื•. ืื—ื“ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉื‘ื•ืœื˜ื™ื ืœืขื™ื ื• ื•ืœืื•ื–ื ื• ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืขืฅ ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื•ื ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื™ื™ืขื•ืฅ ื”ื•ื ืฉื™ืฉื ื ืื ืฉื™ื ืฉื”ืงืฉืจ ื”ืื™ืฉื™ ืฉืœื”ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื›ืœืœ ืœื ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืœื”ื ืขืฆืžื. ื”ื ืื™ื ื ... ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืžืชื•ืš ืฉืืœื”

ืื“ื ืขื•ืœื - ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ

ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื• ื›ื•ืคื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื‘ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืœื”ืชืื™ื ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ืžืฉืชื ื” ื‘ืงืฆื‘ ืžื”ื™ืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื’ื™ืฉืช ื”ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื•ืช ื”ืื•ืคืงื™ืช ืกื‘ื•ืจื” ืฉืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืชืื™ื ืœืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื•ื ืžืชื•ืš ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืžืชืขื•ืจืจื•ืช ื‘ืงืจื‘ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื•. ืชืคืงื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ืขืฅ ื”ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ โ€“ ื”ื•ื ืœืกื™ื™ืข ืœืขื•ืจืจ ืืช ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืžืชื•ืš ืฉืืœื”

ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื• ื›ื•ืคื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื‘ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืœื”ืชืื™ื ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ืžืฉืชื ื” ื‘ืงืฆื‘ ืžื”ื™ืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื’ื™ืฉืช ื”ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื•ืช ื”ืื•ืคืงื™ืช ืกื‘ื•ืจื” ืฉืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืชืื™ื ืœืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื•ื ืžืชื•ืš ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืžืชืขื•ืจืจื•ืช ื‘ืงืจื‘ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื•. ืชืคืงื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ืขืฅ ื”ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ โ€“ ื”ื•ื ืœืกื™ื™ืข ืœืขื•ืจืจ ืืช ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ื•ืขื“ ืขืžื•ืชื” ื•ืฆื•ื•ืช ื ื•ืฉื: ืืชื’ืจื™ื ื•ื›ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ื ืœืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ

ื•ืขื“ ื”ืขืžื•ืชื” ื”ืงื™ื ืืช ื”ื’ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ, ืืš ื›ืžื• ื”ื•ืจื” ื˜ื•ื‘, ืžื’ื™ืข ื”ืฉืœื‘ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื•ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืกื’ืช ื•ืœืชืช ืœื™ืœื“ ืืช ื”ืžืจื—ื‘ ื”ืขืฆืžืื™ ืœื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช. ืžืชื™ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื–ืืช ื•ืžื”ื ืชืคืงื™ื“ื™ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืขืžื•ืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ? >>> ืœืงืจื™ืื”ย  ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

"ื”ืคืจื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื”" ืฉืœ ื”ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ

ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ื”ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ืชื™ ืกืคืจ ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ ื‘ืขื•ืœื, ืื•ืœื ื‘ืžืงืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื™ืชื ืช ืœื” ืคืจืฉื ื•ืช ืžืจื—ื™ืงืช ืœื›ืช ืฉืžืกื™ืจื” ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืื™ืฉื™ืช ืžื”ืžื•ืจื™ื ื•ืžืกืจืกืช ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ. ืื™ืš ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืžื”, ื•ืžื” ื”ืงืฉืจ ืœื™ืจื— ื•ืฉื‘ืชืื™? ืžืืช: ืจื•ื ืŸ ื”ืืŸ ืขืจื›ื” ืืช ื”ืžืืžืจ: ืขื™ื ืช ืืจื•ืš >>> ืœืงืจื™ืื” ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »

ืขืœ ืžื•ืจื™ื ื•ืžื•ืจื™ื ืคื—ื•ืช

ืžื—ืงืจ ื›ืžื•ืชื™ ืฉืขืจื›ืชื™ ืžืขืœื” ื›ื™ ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ืกืคืจ ื•ื•ืœื“ื•ืจืฃ ืงื™ื™ื ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ื‘ืชื—ื•ืฉืช ื”ืžืกื•ื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืฉืจื” ืžืœืื” ืœืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืฉืจื” ื—ืœืงื™ืช. ืžื ื™ืŸ ื ื•ื‘ืข ื”ืคืขืจ ื•ืžื” ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ื“ื•ืŸ? ืžื“ื•ืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช ื—ื™ื ื•ืš. >>> ืœืงืจื™ืื” ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ »